Artificial Intelligence has unlimited possibilities, which is really evident from the new releases and developments it introduces everyone to. With the release of the latest chatbot developed by OpenAI called ChatGPT, the AI field has taken over the world as ChatGPT, thanks to its GPT transformation architecture, is always in the headlines. From deep learning to natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU) to computer vision, AI is propelling everyone into a future filled with endless innovation. Almost every industry is harnessing the potential of artificial intelligence and revolutionizing itself. Excellent technological advances, especially in the areas of Large Language Models (LLM), LangChain and Vector Database, are responsible for this remarkable development.
Great language models
The development of Large Language Models (LLM) represents a huge step forward for Artificial Intelligence. These deep learning-based models demonstrate impressive accuracy and fluency when processing and understanding natural language. LLMs are trained with the help of massive volumes of text data from a variety of sources including books, journals, web pages and other textual resources. They pick up linguistic structures, patterns, and semantic links as they learn language, which helps them understand the intricacies of human communication.
The underlying architecture of LLMs typically involves a deep neural network with multiple layers. Based on the patterns discovered and the connections found in the training data, this network analyzes the input text and produces predictions. In order to reduce the discrepancy between the expected models and the expected outputs, the parameters of the models are adjusted during the training phase. The LLM consumes text data during training and tries to anticipate the following word or set of words depending on the context.
Uses of LLM
- Answering questions: LLMs are skilled at answering questions and, to provide precise and concise answers to a question, they search a large body of text, such as books, papers or websites.
- LLMs in Content Generation have proven useful in businesses that involve content generation. I can produce grammatically sound and coherent articles, blog entries and other written content.
- Text Summarization: LLMs are excellent at text summarizing, which involves retaining vital information while condensing long texts into shorter, more digestible summaries.
- LLM chatbots are often used in building chatbots and systems using conversational AI. They enable these systems to interact with users in normal language by understanding their questions, responding appropriately, and maintaining context during the interaction.
- Language Translation LLMs are able to accurately translate text between languages accurately, facilitating successful communication despite linguistic barriers.
Stages of forming an LLM
- The initial stage of training an LLM is to compile a sizable textual dataset which the model will use to discover linguistic patterns and structures.
- Preprocessing is required once the dataset has been collected to prepare it for training. To do this, the data must be cleansed by deleting any unnecessary or redundant entries.
- Selecting the appropriate model architecture is essential to forming an LLM. Transformer-based architectures have proven to be very efficient in natural language processing and production, including the GPT model.
- Model parameters are tuned to train the LLM and their accuracy is increased using deep learning methods such as backpropagation. The model processes input data during training and produces predictions based on recognized models.
- Following initial training, the LLM is further refined on specific tasks or domains to enhance its performance in those areas.
- It is essential to evaluate the performance of trained LLMs in order to determine their effectiveness by using a variety of metrics, including perplexity and accuracy, to evaluate model performance.
- The LLM is used in a production environment for real-world applications once it has been trained and assessed.
Some famous language models
- GPT Generative Pre-trained Transformer is a prominent member of OpenAI’s GPT template family and serves as the underlying template for the popular ChatGPT. It is a decoder-only one-way autoregressive model as it generates text by predicting the next word based on previously generated words. With 175 billion parameters, GPT is commonly used for generating content, answering questions, and whatnot.
- BERT Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) is one of the first self-supervised language models based on Transformers. It is a powerful model for natural language understanding and processing with 340 million parameters.
- PaLM Googles Pathways Language Model (PaLM) with 540 billion parameters used a modified version of the common encoder-decoder transformer model architecture and showed great performance in the tasks of natural language processing, code generation, question answering, etc. .
LLMs have inherent limitations when it comes to producing precise answers or tackling tasks that require in-depth domain knowledge or experience, despite being adaptable and capable of performing a wide range of linguistic tasks. LangChain, in this case, acts as a link between LLMs and subject matter specialists. Whilst incorporating specialist knowledge from domain experts, it utilizes the power of LLMs. It provides more precise, in-depth and contextually appropriate answers in specialist subjects by fusing the general linguistic understanding of the LLMs with domain-specific expertise.
Importance of LangChain
When asking an LLM for a list of the previous week’s best performing stores, without the LangChain framework, the LLM devises a logical SQL query to extract the desired result with false but plausible column names. With the help of the LangChain architecture, programmers can provide the LLM with a range of options and features. They can request that the LLM create a workflow which breaks down the issue into parts and can be guided by the LLM questions and intermediate steps, enabling the LLM to respond with a full statement.
To research medications, LLMs may provide general information about medical problems, but may lack the in-depth understanding needed to make specific diagnoses or treatment recommendations. LangChain, on the other hand, can add medical knowledge from specialists or medical information databases to enhance the answers of LLMs.
The vector database is a brand new and distinctive database that is rapidly gaining acceptance in the artificial intelligence and machine learning domains. These are distinct from traditional relational databases, which were initially designed to store tabular data in rows and columns, and more contemporary NoSQL databases, such as MongoDB, which store data as JSON documents. This is because a vector database is only designed to store and retrieve vector embeds as data.
A vector database is based on vector embedding, a data coding that carries semantic information that allows AI systems to interpret and maintain data over the long term. In vector databases, data is organized and stored using its geometric properties, where the coordinates of each object in space and other defining qualities are used to identify it. These databases help to search for similar items and perform advanced analysis on huge amounts of data.
Main vector databases
- Pinecone Pinecone is a cloud-based vector database that was created with the express purpose of quickly storing, indexing, and searching large collections of high-dimension vectors. Its ability to perform real-time indexing and searching is one of its key features. It can handle both sparse and dense vectors.
- Chroma Chroma is an open source vector database that provides a fast and scalable way to store and retrieve embeds. It’s easy to use and lightweight, offers a simple API, and supports a variety of backends, including popular choices like RocksDB and Faiss.
- Milvus Milvus is a vector database system specifically designed to handle large amounts of complex data efficiently. For a variety of applications, including similarity search, anomaly detection, and natural language processing, it’s a robust, adaptable solution that offers high speed, performance, scalability, and specialized capabilities.
- Redis Is a great vector database with features including indexing and searching, distance calculation, high performance, data storage and analysis, and fast response times.
- Vespa Vespa supports geospatial search and real-time analytics, provides fast query results, and has high data availability and a number of classification options.
Bottom line, this year will see unprecedented growth in the widespread use of Artificial Intelligence. This outstanding development is due to the outstanding technological developments, especially in the fields of Large Language Models (LLM), LangChain and Vector Databases. LLMs have transformed natural language processing; LangChain has provided a framework for programmers to build intelligent agents, and high-dimensional data can now be efficiently stored, indexed, and retrieved with vector databases. Together, these technological breakthroughs have paved the way for an AI-driven future.
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Tanya Malhotra is a final year student at Petroleum and Energy University, Dehradun pursuing BTech in Computer Engineering with a major in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
She is a Data Science enthusiast with good analytical and critical thinking, coupled with a burning interest in acquiring new skills, leading teams, and managing work in an organized manner.
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